Although we now tend to refer to the various crafts according to the materials used to construct them-clay, glass, wood, fiber, and metal-it was once common to think of crafts in terms of function, which led to their being known as the “applied arts.”


The impact of raindrops on the loose soil tends to transfer fine clay particles into the tiniest soil spaces, sealing them and producing a surface that allows very little water penetration.


Whatever the reason for mountain formation, as soon as land rises above sea level it is subjected to destructive forces.


Indeed, stability of the biological clock’s period is one of its major features, even when the organism’s environment is subjected to considerable changes in factors, such as temperature, that would beexpected to affect biological activity strongly.


Scientific analysis reveals that the colors were derived from ocher and other iron oxides ground into a fine powder.


In some regions, the increase in desert areas is occurring largely as the result of a trend toward drier climatic conditions.


There is little doubt, however, that desertification in most areas results primarily from human activities rather than natural processes.

cast doubt on


The fossil consists of a complete skull of an archaeocyte, an extinct group of ancestors of modern cetaceans.


Although origin in ritual has long been the most popular, it is by no means the only theory about how the theater came into being.


It ranges from sea level in the Polar Regions to 4,500 meters in the dry subtropics and 3,500-4,500 meters in the moist tropics.


In the tropics, the valleys appear to be more favorable because they are less prone to dry out, they have less frost, and they have deeper soils.


People are bound within relationships by two types of bonds: expressive ties and instrumental ties.


Instrumental ties predominate in secondary groups; we perceive people as means to ends rather than as ends in their own right.


Sociologists view primary groups as bridges between individuals and the larger society because they transmit, mediate, and interpret a society’s cultural patterns and provide the sense of oneness so critical for social solidarity.


Primary groups are fundamental because they serve as powerful instruments for social control.


Second, face-to-face contact allows us to size up others.


According to some estimates, the majority of all extinctions of species may be due to such impacts.


Yet an equally important criterion is the ability of a species to survive random global ecological catastrophes due to impacts.


Sensitivity to physical laws is thus an important consideration for the maker of applied-art objects. It is often taken for granted that this is also true for the maker of fine-art objects. This assumption misses a significant difference between the two disciplines. Fine-art objects are not constrained by the laws of physics in the same way that applied-art objects are.


Even though the fine arts in the twentieth century often treat materials in new ways, the basic difference in attitude of artists in relation to their materials in the fine arts and the applied arts remains relatively constant.


It would therefore not be too great an exaggeration to say that practitioners of the fine arts work to overcome the limitations of their materials, whereas those engaged in the applied arts work in concert with their materials.


A new plant will spring up wherever a seed falls on a suitable soil surface, but because they do not build big bodies, they cannot compete with other plants for space, water, or sunlight.


Consolidated (or cemented) sediments, too, contain millions of minute water-holding pores.


The most widely accepted theory, championed by anthropologists in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, envisions theater as emerging out of myth and ritual.


Wind carries fine particles of sand, which bombard exposed rock surfaces, thereby wearing them into yet more sand.


Cheap shoes soon wear out.


In 1991 the United States Congress asked NASA to investigate the hazard posed today by large impacts on Earth.


Such impacts continue to pose a natural hazard to life on Earth.


Experiments have also cast serious doubt on the belief that yawning is triggered by a drop in blood oxygen or a rise in blood carbon dioxide.


But, while accepting that not everything in life can be explained by Darwinian evolution, there are sound reasons for being skeptical of theories like this one, which avoid the issue of what yawning does for adults.


In the wake of the Roman Empire’s conquest of Britain in the first century A.D., a large number of troops stayed in the new province, and these troops had a considerable impact on Britain with their camps, fortifications, and participation in the local economy.


A massive oak claims its ground for 200 years or more, outcompeting all other would-be canopy trees by casting a dense shade and drawing up any free water in the soil.


Pakicetus was found embedded in rocks formed from river deposits that were 52 million years old.


While there are a dozen or more mass extinctions in the geological record, the Cretaceous mass extinction has always intrigued paleontologists because it marks the end of the age of the dinosaurs.


It probably bred and gave birth on land.


One is that people’s capacity to outwit other species, not their aggressiveness, appears to be the dominant factor in human survival.


The cinema did not emerge as a form of mass consumption until its technology evolved from the initial “peepshow” format to the point where images were projected on a screen in a darkened theater.


There was informal marriage with soldiers, who until AD 197 were not legally entitled to wed, and whole new communities grew up near the forts.


Neither party could win an election by appealing exclusively to the rich or the poor.


account for 解释/占/对…负责


8. The phrase account for in the passage is closest in meaning to (  )






Climatic changes at the end of the glacial period 13,000 years ago have been proposed to account for the emergence of farming.


In Sweden exports accounted for 18 percent of the national income in 1870.


Production of British cotton goods increased sixtyfold, and cotton cloth became Great Britain’s most important product, accounting for one-half of all exports.


How might this inability to recall early experiences be explained? The sheer passage of time does not account for it.


Some hypotheses fail to account for simultaneous extinctions on land and in the seas.


Several factors may account for Teotihuacán’s extraordinary development, including its location, rich natural resources, irrigation potential, intelligent elite, and the misfortune of rival communities.


take xxx into account/ take into account xxx


The artist must take into account the physical properties of the material.


Hills and mountains are often regarded as the epitome of permanence, successfully resisting the destructive forces of nature, but in fact they tend to be relatively short-lived in geological terms.


By far the most abundant type of groundwater is meteoric water.


The proportion of empty space in a rock is known as its porosity.


With the advent of projection, the viewer’s relationship with the image was no longer private, as it had been with earlier peepshow devices such as the Kinetoscope and the Mutoscope, which was a similar machine that reproduced motion by means of successive images on individual photographic cards instead of on strips of celluloid. It suddenly became public-an experience that the viewer shared with dozens, scores, and even hundreds of others.



It has been estimated that an additional one-fourth of the Earth’s land surface is threatened by this process.



The group conducting the study concluded from a detailed analysis that impacts from meteorites can indeed be hazardous.


The gradual drying of the soil caused by its diminished ability to absorb water results in the further loss of vegetation, so that a cycle of progressive surface deterioration is established.


The destruction caused by the volcanic explosion of Mount St. Helens, in the northwestern United States, for example, pales in comparison to the destruction caused by humans.


It is held there by the force of surface tension without which water would drain instantly from any wet surface, leaving it totally dry.



Caught on the spot, he could not deny his crime.


Presumably, those environmental disasters could have been responsible for the mass extinction, including the death of the dinosaurs.


Following each mass extinction, there is a sudden evolutionary burst as new species develop to fill the ecological niches opened by the event.


Extracting heat from very hot, dry rocks presents a more difficult problem: the rocks must be fractured to permit the circulation of water, and the water must be provided artificially.



Even though early exhibitors shaped their film programs by mixing films and other entertainments together in whichever way they thought would be most attractive to audiences or by accompanying them with lectures, their creative control remained limited.


Whigs and Democrats differed not only in their attitudes toward the market but also about how active the central government should be in people’s lives.


A population of oaks is likely to be relatively stable through time, and its survival is likely to depend more on its ability to withstand the pressures of competition or predation than on its ability to take advantage of chance events.


the –er…, the –er…..

As a general rule, the higher a mountain is, the more recently it was formed.


For example, the stronger the primary group ties of a sports team playing together, the better their record is.


Be of + N.


be of (great) importance/significance/value…


And in that process, the help of the United States is of enormous significance.


His reading is of very wide range.


Another crucial lesson China has learned is that political stability is of paramount importance.


Since I’m currently seven months pregnant, this question is of particular interest to me.


Even if the new population is of a different species, it can approximately fill the niche vacated by the extinct population and keep the food web intact.



Hew out of the mountain of despair a stone of hope.


Seeing and talking with one another in close physical proximity makes possible a subtle exchange of ideas and feelings.


Nevertheless, they retained as parts of their oral tradition the myths that had grown up around the rites and admired them for their artistic qualities rather than for their religious usefulness.



Should the use of rewards fail, members can frequently win by rejecting or threatening to ostracize those who deviate from the primary group’s norms. For instance, some social groups employ shunning (a person can remain in the community, but others are forbidden to interact with the person) as a device to bring into line individuals whose behavior goes beyond that allowed by the particular group.



Consequently, surprisingly, unfortunately, universally, normally, indeed, particularly, presumably, typically



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